Buying a new car is one of life’s less pleasant events. There’s a lot of waiting. A lot of time “checking with my boss”. A barrage of confusing options and figures. Your goal of getting a great deal eventually shifts to just finishing the process and reclaiming your life and sanity. And that’s how they win.
The problem is that buying a new car isn’t as straightforward as most purchases. Price is highly negotiable, and there are many other factors (e.g., financing, trade-in) that complicate the transaction.
While many a finance expert would recommend buying used as one of the best ways to save on a car purchase, I’ve always felt that buying a new car, if done well (buying a low-end model at a great price with only the features you want) can be competitive with the used route.
But buying new means you must enter the lion’s den. Most people feel at a serious disadvantage when purchasing from a dealer. You’ll be negotiating with salesmen who do this for a living! They have numerous advantages and press them all to maximize their proceeds. How can you possibly compete?
It’s actually not that hard to level the playing field with a car dealership. The key is to understand their negotiating strengths and do everything possible to neutralize them.
When I recently purchased a new car, someone was curious as to what transpired at the dealership. What was said from the moment I drove onto the lot until I left in my new ride?
The answer is almost nothing. There was a 30 second exchange on my trade-in, but other than that, nothing meaningful transpired. Everything possible was negotiated before I drove to the dealership, and that is the key to my process for buying new cars.
While my process isn’t that complicated, I have been surprised how novel it seems to my friends.
I lay out my strategy for buying new cars in painstaking detail below. The casual reader may want to skim this one. But I wanted to lay out my comprehensive approach so future buyers have my soup-to-nuts strategy in one place. When I hear about someone wasting half their day, getting really stressed out, paying more than they should, or getting screwed on financing or a trade-in, it makes me sad. The below is my modest effort to assist.
The Salesperson’s Edge
When car salespeople go to sleep at night, they dream of welcoming unprepared buyers who are short of time and lack good alternatives. That allows them to press these serious advantages:
Every second you spend at a dealership without a deal is a win for the salesperson. They know you have better things to do and won’t want to start the process again somewhere else. They have to be at work anyway, so time is on their side.
Every dealer knows their cost and potential profit down to the penny. Offers are typically made from them to you – often at a languid pace and in a very confusing (“here’s your monthly payment!”) format. You can be sure they’re making good money on any offer.
You, on the other hand, have a much harder task. You have to react to their offer in an instant, and they are watching you like a hawk. How does their offer compare to what you could get elsewhere? Great question, and good luck researching that as a captive audience.
If you don’t finance with a dealer or trade in your old car to them, they’re going to be just fine. But if you don’t have a good financing or trade-in alternative, you’re in trouble. You might get a good price on the new car, but they’ll make their money elsewhere.
The plan is to organize alternatives in advance and then avoid the wasted time and limited options that come from being trapped at the dealership.
My New Car Buying Process
My car buying process is straightforward. I’ve used it on multiple occasions, and each time I feel like I’ve gotten a good deal. I’ve never been stressed out or gotten upset, but in a sign that perhaps I have turned the tables, I can’t say the same thing for my salesperson counterparts 🙂
Step 1: Pick your make and model
You must confirm your exact make and model before you start the formal purchase process. You’ll want to signal that you are extremely well-informed, ready to buy, and completely decisive. A single price on a single car is easy for a salesperson to understand, and it also reduces their opportunities to upsell or confuse you with a tornado of numbers.
Fortunately, there is so much information available nowadays that you will be drowning in data. Edmunds and U.S. News are great starting points, especially for finding competing models, but simply searching on your model of interest will give a treasure trove of highly informative articles, spec sheets, and comparisons with competing models. For more popular cars, there are often excellent YouTube videos – both detailed reviews and thorough test drives. You should not only confirm your model of choice but also conclude why it’s better than its close competitors.
Ideally, you’ll be able to get to a single model of interest before the next step. If you’re stuck between two models, maybe take them both for test drives. If you can’t decide between three or more, you’re not very good at making decisions.
Step 2: Go for a Test Drive
Once you have the car you think you want to buy, you should take it for a test drive. This will be your only time with the car before you’re committed to purchasing, so put it through its paces. This is the reconnaissance mission before the actual battle. You won’t be buying today, but it’ll confirm if this is the car you want.
The test drive should be on a car with the exact features you want, but you should do it somewhere other than your first choice of dealership. I’ll explain that more below, but online / phone sales (which yours will be) are often handled by someone other than a regular salesperson. You need a regular salesperson for a test drive, though.
Search the dealer’s inventory online so you know exactly which car you want to test drive. Head out to the lot and one of the sharks will see you and close in.
When they start with the niceties, just say, “I would like to take a [make / model with whatever trim or features you require] for a test drive.”
They’ll probably take you inside to copy your license and get information and start what promises to be a wonderful friendship.
Say as little as possible. Your only goal is the test drive. Some of the likely exchanges include:
“Are you in the market for a car?”
If they press, follow with, “I’m really early in the process, but I want to see if this car might work for me, so I wanted to do a test drive.”
“Are you planning on buying today?”
Don’t say anything else. If they ignore your silence and ask, “Why not?”, talk about the need for a test drive, the need to check with a spouse or something, or whatever – just be definitive or they’ll pounce.
“Do you have a trade-in?”
If you do, tell them, “Maybe. I haven’t decided what I’m going to do with it yet.”
There’s no value in sharing information on trade-ins right now.
At the end of the test drive, the salesperson will try for a sale. I normally say, “I am NOT planning on buying today, but I promise you will be in the running when I’m ready.” Blame your budget, your spouse, your income tax refund – anything’ll do. Or you can ask them for a cup of coffee and run away while they get it. Just get out of there.
Step 3: Organize Financing
Please pay cash for your car.
But if you can’t / won’t, you must organize financing before you go to the dealership. Call your bank, your credit union, your loan shark, or whatever people who finance cars do to get pre-approved and stuff. You can certainly entertain dealer / manufacturer provided financing, but you need a backup to keep them honest.
If you’re planning on paying cash, move the high-end estimate to your checking account. (I’ve never needed a cashier’s check for a car purchase, but if local rules require that, prepare accordingly.)
Step 4: Organize Your Trade-In
If you’re going to sell your current car to a private party, bully for you. I’ve never been patient enough to sell a car that way, but it should maximize your proceeds, particularly if you place no value on your time.
However, if you’re hoping to trade in your current car to the dealer, you need a backup offer that’ll be a floor on its value.
I have always used CarMax to keep the dealer honest. I love CarMax. They will provide an offer that is good for 7 days – more than enough time for you to finish the purchase process at the dealer. With that offer in hand, you can go to the dealer and dangle your juicy trade-in, but if they decide to screw you (hint: they will), you have an excellent backup. (When you go to the dealer, make sure you bring another driver with you or they will call your bluff.)
There are additional options cropping up to compete with CarMax. Any option that gives you a binding offer that will last long enough for you to complete your purchase process at the dealer will suffice.
Even though you won’t be acting on this offer today, treat it as seriously as if you’re actually selling. Get your second set of keys ready, wash and clean your car, and do everything you can to make it look great. You may not be adding any real value, but you’re signaling that you’re serious and want top dollar.
Once you’ve organized your trade-in, the clock is ticking. Make sure you complete your new car purchase before your non-dealer offer expires.
Step 5: Spreadsheet Time
Now you need to build an inventory of every available car.
Find every dealer that is a reasonable drive away and build a spreadsheet listing every suitable car of your desired make & model in their inventory. You’ll only have to make the drive once, so use a big radius to maximize the competition.
On your spreadsheet, you should also include any car and dealers that appear to be competition with the car you actually want, even if they aren’t. If it’s a color you hate but is still popular, include it – you can use that car to lower the price of the one you want. The same holds with the dealership – even if a dealer is a little too far for you to drive, the other dealers won’t know that. You’ll use that distant dealer to offer a great price that you then ask the closer ones to beat.
Your spreadsheet should include MSRP, any discounted price on the online listing, VIN, stock number (if any), color, and listed features. Include a field for the salesperson’s name and cell phone, the car’s mileage, and “best price”, all of which you’ll fill in when you call.
For each car, you also need to break down the MSRP and invoice into its components, building up from a base price to the full MSRP and invoice for that particular vehicle. Unfortunately, dealers don’t always make this easy. They may list some, all, or none of the accessories and packages for a car, leaving you with a puzzle to solve. If you go to the manufacturer’s website, you should be able to “build your own car” with MSRP, and a little trial and error should give you the exact features to total the MSRP for your target car. For the corresponding invoice pricing, you’ll need to use Edmunds or another site.
While this is an annoying step, it’s a very important one. Invoice cost, which is the price on the invoice from the manufacturer to the dealer, is a much more relevant figure for your negotiation than MSRP. In addition, knowing the specific packages or accessories on the car is critical: if a salesperson balks at matching or beating someone else’s price because they complain it’s not an “apples to apples” comparison, your detailed breakdown can confirm it is. And finally, fluidly quoting invoice prices and specific component costs during your negotiation will powerfully signal that you have done your homework and are not to be trifled with.
Step 6: Set Your Expectations
Once you’ve got your full list of target cars, you need to find out what you should expect to pay.
Generally, you would expect to pay less (hopefully way less!) than MSRP and more than dealer invoice. However, there are many scenarios where you can get below dealer invoice. Competition, not MSRP or invoice, is going to drive your final price, and you should be able to search online for an estimate of what you might pay.
There are many sites that provide fair market prices, and the main players seem to shift over time. The best approach is to just search “fair market price for [make / model]”.
Do not rely on a single site for an estimate of fair market price. Some fair market estimates have been WAY higher than my eventual price. (Laziness? An accommodation from sites a little too cozy with manufacturers? My negotiating brilliance? Who knows?) I always go to multiple sites, and I’ll anchor against the lowest “fair market estimate” I can find.
To get the most accurate fair market estimate, you’ll need to enter the exact features for your target car (see, the work you did above is already paying off!).
You also need to research dealer incentives, which are additional funds offered by the manufacturer to the dealer. Those may be available on the manufacturer’s website, on Edmunds, or just by googling “current incentives on [make / model]”. Since they’re part of the dealer’s economics, you need to know what they are. If someone offers to sell you a car at invoice, but they’re making a ton of money on other incentives, you could be leaving a lot of money on the table.
Step 7: Dialing for Dollars
This is where the magic happens. You’ll be calling all of the dealers with cars you want and getting their best price. You won’t leave your house or office until you have a deal.
You should move from least desired car / dealer to most desired. In a perfect world, your closest dealer or most desired car will be the final, best price you receive. In addition, you’ll improve your spiel as you go through this process, so by the time you get to the preferred seller, you’ll sound smooth and savvy.
I typically only go through my list once. You could conceivably go through a second round, but having done this several times, I always feel like I’ve extracted almost all value after one. Plus, motivated salespeople will typically chase you to the end, even when you think you’re done. I’ve gotten calls from my runner up, who earlier claimed he “couldn’t go any lower”, on the way to purchase.
When the dealer answers, you should say, “I am planning on buying a [make / model] today and would like to discuss a specific one on your lot.” In my experience, this will route the call to someone who handles online / phone sales rather than a regular salesperson. Repeat your request to them. Have both the VIN and any stock number they use handy – both for efficiency and to signal that you are already VERY up to speed in your search. You’re a serious buyer ready to pull the trigger.
They’ll find the car, and then they’ll say something like, “How can I help you?” or “When can you come in to take a look at it?”
That’s your cue. Tell them: “I need to know your best price for this car. I’m ready to buy today, and I’m calling every dealer to get their best price. Once I have everyone’s, I’m going to drive out and buy from whoever has the best pricing.”
Remember that negotiating a car purchase over the phone is still not the norm, so this request may knock them off their game a bit. If they pause to gather their thoughts, just wait.
Some dealers may not budge from MSRP or their “online special” price unless you come in. Take them off your list. My experience is that most will. And all you really need is two for a good ol’ fashioned price fight.
If they agree to get you their “best price”, they’ll probably ask if you have a trade-in. Have the VIN, mileage, and packages / features for any trade. They’ll also ask if you’re going to finance. I tell them I’m open to it, but I’m just worried about the price right now (this should keep them from presenting you with monthly payment options).
Hopefully, they’ll take that information and ask to call you back with the offer. If they ask to keep you on hold, refuse – tell them you have other dealers calling and you need the line free. You can also get their direct number “…in case I’m on with another salesperson when you call me back.” When they call back, you may want to send the call to voicemail just to increase the drama.
For the next dealer, go through the same script, but when you get to the salesperson, add a little at the end: “I am planning on buying a car today and would like to discuss a specific [make / model] on your lot. I have an offer from [name of other dealer] and want your best price to see if it can beat them.”
I always call the salesperson who gave me the test drive back in Step 2, even though that means I’ll miss any online / phone sales specialist who might be easier to negotiate a phone sale. I do this for two reasons. First, even though they’ve only given me a 10-15 minute test drive, it only seems fair to give them a crack at the sale. Second, if I were to actually strike a deal at that dealer but they see I’ve talked to two different people, it could complicate commissions and get people upset.
Should You Share The Other Dealer’s Price?
At the beginning, I would recommend just asking for their “best price” and make sure they realize they have serious competition. If you tell them the exact price of another dealer, they’ll probably just match or beat it by $100, which will seriously slow your limbo contest.
As you near the end, I think it’s fine to tell folks the best price you’ve received, especially if it’s in a consolation call to the loser. “Thank you very much, but one of your competitors was actually able to give me a lower price, so I’m going to go with them.” They will ask what that is, and hopefully they will either offer to beat that price or tell you, “I can’t compete with that.” Either way you win.
Questions and Answers
I can’t anticipate everything the salesperson will say, but I have some good guesses. See below for examples and my normal response. Use whatever language is comfortable for you, but practice your delivery so you’re concise and definitive.
Come on In!
Salesperson: “This is the best price we can do over the phone, but if you come in, we can try to get you where you need to be.”
You: “I am ready to buy today, but I have a number of cars at a number of dealers that will work. I want to finalize the best pricing I can before I head out anywhere.” Keep repeating “I’m ready to buy today” – it resonates.
Under no circumstances should you head to a dealer until your final price is locked.
A common tactic is to move very little on the new car price but promise you a screamin’ deal on your trade-in. “We can’t move much on the price, but your trade-in has a value of $X,XXX – all you care about is the net, right?” This is especially common when they’re comparing their price to another dealer and explaining why they can’t match. Or they’ll simply say, “We can work with you on the trade!”
Nothing they promise on your trade is going to survive your first step into the dealer.
They want you at their dealership so they can switch to the traditional sales model and start wasting your time. They will most certainly discover something tragically wrong with your trade-in which scuttles any phone estimate.
You: “I’m treating the trade as a separate transaction. I’ll certainly give you a chance at it when we come in, but right now I just need the best price possible on the new car.” Let them think that they’ll be able to screw you on the trade-in and make their money there, because you already have a backup offer for it (Step 4).
This can be tricky, because it will depend on both what they want and what you need. Sometimes they will have incentives in place to provide financing, and sometimes they will have incentives in place to NOT provide financing (esp. if their finance rate is below market – keep that in mind as you weigh 0.0% or similar financing).
They may ask, “Do you need to see payments?”
The answer to this is “NO! I’m just worried about the price” [Sidebar: If you can’t figure out if you can afford a car until you see monthly payments, you’re reading the wrong blog.]
They will ask, “Are you looking to finance?” / ““Are you going to pay cash or finance?” / “Do you need financing?” I’ve tried a number of approaches, from pretending to be poor to just coldly stating I’d be paying cash. Finally, I’ve decided financing is one area where I should just be completely open. So nowadays I tell them, “I can pay cash, but I will do whatever’s possible to help you lower the price, including financing some minimum amount.” That avoids us dancing around to try to figure out each other’s position, and it maximizes their tools to save me money.
If you need to finance, just make sure you have a competitive loan lined up (Step 3) to keep the dealer honest.
If they provide their “best price” without much fuss, just tell them:
“Awesome – thank you so much. I just need to finish calling the other dealers with the same car, and I’ll be back in touch shortly.” Bye bye.
If they want to know what other dealers have offered, but it’s early and/or you don’t want to say:
“I don’t want to shop around everyone’s offer – I just want to get the best price from everyone and then go with whoever is lowest. That will keep everyone happy and avoid you getting into a bidding war with the other dealers.”
Hahaha – a bidding war is EXACTLY what you are doing. But said this way, it sounds nicer.
Salesperson: “There’s no markup on them” / “There’s very little markup on them” / “Even if we sell them at sticker we don’t make any money on them” / “My hands are tied” / “They’ve already discounted the vehicle as much as possible” / ““The online price is the best price”
You: “Sounds great! I think some of the other dealers are able to do better than that. Feel free to give me a call if anything changes.”
If they present a terrible price:
“Oh – OK [light laughter]. Well, someone’s already beat that. Thanks!”
Salesperson: “Where do you need to be?” / “Is there a price you’re trying to be at?” (not my grammar – this was verbatim…)
You: “I need to be at the lowest price possible.”
Don’t give them any number, because once you give that number you are locked.
If they balk at someone else’s price: “I can’t even make money at that price!”
Do not get into a debate with them, even if you know they are over dealer invoice. It is a fruitless waste of your time. Keep it simple.
“I certainly don’t want anyone to lose money. I’m just trying to find the best price I can for this car and it looks like I’ve found it. Thanks!”
If they question whether their car is the same as another dealer’s, refer to your detailed breakdown of features (I told you it would come in handy). Quoting them precise invoice cost of each feature tends to shut them up.
When you’re near the end and feel like sharing your best offer, they may ask:
“Do we have to beat that? Or can we meet that?”
“Well, I’d need a reason to buy from you instead of them, wouldn’t I?”
Don’t Be Very Nice
The salesperson wants to be your friend. You have enough friends. Don’t be a jerk, but be very cold and businesslike.
“What time are you coming in to take a look at it?”
“Are we close?”
“No, you’re not.”
“Are we in the running?”
“No, not right now.”
If Things Get Heated
Whatever happens, be patient and stay calm. This is not you versus the salesperson. This is salesperson versus salesperson. If they get angry with you – for not coming in to negotiate, for asking other dealers to beat their offer, for suggesting they “lose money on the deal” – just recognize it’s part of the game. Stay pleasant no matter what happens, don’t get into any arguments, and simply plead ignorance if someone alleges that you’re being a jerk. I was once screamed at and called some not very nice names for “shoppin’ my deal all over the city” – I just apologized and explained I didn’t realize we had a non-disclosure agreement (then I defined “non-disclosure agreement” for him…). In a funny twist, I ended up buying from that dealer.
Do Not Lie
Every salesperson may think I’m a jerk (salespeople all nodding), but from the very beginning I am straightforward and completely honest about what I’m doing. You might feel the slightest tug to be a little loose with details (aka “lie”) – maybe rounding down just a bit when sharing a bona fide offer.
Don’t. First, it’s dishonest, which should be reason enough. But second, you have no idea what is going on with the dealer pricing so it would be easy to make a mistake. If you present a “price” from someone else that they know is a lie, you have killed that dealer as an option. The competition is what is going to get you a good price, not your comprehensive knowledge of dealer pricing and incentives.
During these conversations, you need to find out the total “out-the-door” price. It doesn’t have to be your first focus, but as you near the end with your best offers, you need to clarify the total price.
You can ask, “Will I only be paying tax, title, and license, and can you tell me the total out-the-door price?” If they’ve given you a fanciful trade offer, have them calculate both with and without the trade.
There will be other fees. Hopefully they’re modest, but you need to know what they are. Build up the total price on your spreadsheet, make sure you foot to their total, and write that figure down.
Final Thoughts On the Phone Negotiations
If you have a number of target cars, this process can take some time. I would go through the dealers sequentially, waiting for each offer before asking the next person to beat it. As you wait and this plays out, just remember you’re chillin’ at home or your office rather than stuck at a car dealership with terrible coffee, a single seller, and intentional delays.
Present yourself as a disciplined, experienced, and knowledgeable buyer. You’re weighing a TON of offers (right?). They have to truly believe that you 1) will finish negotiations solely over the phone and 2) will head out to buy immediately after that.
Each time I’ve bought a car this way, I’ve had some initial doubts. Sometimes the first couple salespeople refuse to budge on the phone, and I start to question the model. But every time, someone has broken, and then the offers start flowing. Even though they may not make as much money, they’re still moving a unit.
If this works well, you’ll eventually get to a point where a salesperson tells you they can’t beat your best offer. That is a great sign, especially if they sound legitimately surprised that someone offered it. You have a winner!
As a courtesy (ahem), I would contact every salesperson with higher prices to thank them for their time and tell them that you won’t, unfortunately, be doing business today. This is a good idea for several reasons. One, things may fall through at the other dealer. Two, they may find a way to improve their offer.
Step 8: Confirm Pricing
Once you have a winner, have them confirm the “out-the-door” price down to the penny. Replicate the calculation. Build it up in your spreadsheet so you foot to the exact same number. If you can’t foot to their number exactly (hint: yours might be lower), find out what you’re missing – document fees, hat fees, whatever.
Because I’m a cynic, I’ll typically finish with, “So if I were to walk in and write a check for $XX,XXX, the car is mine, right?”
If you’re credit card hacking and hope to put some of the price on your card, discuss that with them now, not when you get to the dealership. It may not be allowed on a car purchase, and it most certainly won’t be welcome. But if you negotiate it in, a deal is a deal. (Obviously, only use a credit card if you’re chasing an intro spending bonus and can pay it off immediately.)
Step 9: Prepare for the Purchase
If necessary, call your insurance company and tell them you’re about to purchase a car. Find out if you need to confirm the purchase at the dealer or if it’s automatically covered until you get home.
If you don’t have collision insurance on your current car, make sure your new one will have collision coverage until you get your insurance sorted out.
Call your pre-approved financier and let them know you may need them.
Bring your checkbook.
Bring something (your fully charged phone, book, jigsaw puzzle) so you can leisurely entertain yourself in case there are delays.
Take out everything you can from your old car, and bring a bag for everything else.
Take a picture of you hugging your old car.
Step 10: Go to the Dealership
The first step at the dealer is a test drive. This is not to confirm that you like this make & model, but to confirm that the mileage is the same as you were told and the car is mechanically sound. Your previous test drive was to confirm you like this ride, so treat this as simple diligence to keep the dealer honest.
Once you go inside, do not relax. Do not assume that just because you have an agreed price that everything is fine. You’re not at the finish line yet.
One interesting (and very scary) warning: assume that everything you say is being heard. Before Edmunds became cozy with the industry many years ago, they had a brilliant article from a writer who went undercover as a salesman at a dealership. He said it was common at his dealer for a salesperson to call another office from the desk phone and leave the connection open while he “checked with his manager”. As you and your spouse whispered to confirm your total negotiating strategy, they heard everything. Maybe that was only at that dealer, and maybe that never occurs anywhere else. Maybe.
In any event, there is no reason for you to be discussing anything. Everything, including your required trade-in price, should be decided in advance. However, if you want to have some fun, you can assume they are listening and play to the audience.
I have never gotten a good offer on a trade from a dealer. I’ve never had them beat the CarMax price. They’ve never even matched.
The best a dealer has ever done is make me indifferent between selling to CarMax or trading to them (because I save some sales tax when they net my trade-in against the new car, they can offer a bit less). I don’t even try a lengthy negotiation anymore. I just receive their ridiculous lowball offer, tell them no thanks, and then see if they’ll come up to my breakeven point. I bring my CarMax offer with me for proof.
Remember to bring another driver with you, or your competing offer won’t be as credible.
You’re on your own here. I don’t know how one decides between dealer financing and bank / credit union / loan shark financing. Maybe the rate? I pay cash for cars. Sorry.
But if you’ve stayed away from the monthly payment shell game, it should be pretty straightforward to compare your third-party financing with their offer. Good luck.
You don’t have much invested at this point, and you probably have a good runner up who’s feeling rejected. So if they sneak in additional fees (sometimes dealers just can’t resist), be ready to walk. As I stormed out once, I’ve had a salesperson chase me down, asking, “You’re going to kill the deal over $50?” I turned on him and shouted, “NO! YOU are killing the deal over $50!!!” The missus thought I was insane (she might have a point…), but the salesperson’s next timid words were, “Ummm…if we take off that fee…can we still…have a deal?”
Please don’t sign anything without having read it thoroughly. You will join me as one of the only people who’s read every word of every contract (I even scour the privacy statement). This will be annoying to the salesperson, but I figure they’ll just add that to the list. If you don’t want me to read it, then don’t ask me to sign it.
Please please please double check the figure on the sales contract and make sure it matches the final figure on the phone to the penny.
Though there’ll always be a few surprises, hopefully this addresses most of the things you’ll encounter at the dealer. I hope you get a great deal and get out with your sanity intact.
Heading to a dealership to buy a new car can wear you down, leaving you tired, frustrated, and ready to agree to anything just to get out of there.
Preparing thoroughly, negotiating in a fairer forum, and minimizing time at the dealer can shift things in your favor. Heavily. It certainly has for me.
Do you have car buying advice? Any tips to add to the above? Any horror stories or epic wins? Let me know in the comments.
And to see my strategy as executed in my recent car purchase, stay tuned for my next post!